We consider a generalization of the one-dimensional t-J model with anisotropic spin-spin interactions. We show that the anisotropy leads to an effective attractive interaction between the spinon and holon excitations, resulting in a localized bound state. Detailed quantitative analytic predictions for the dependence of the binding energy on the anisotropy are presented and are verified by precise numerical simulations. The binding energy is found to interpolate smoothly between a finite value in the t- Jz limit and zero in the isotropic limit, going to zero exponentially in the vicinity of the latter. We identify changes in spinon dispersion as the primary factor for this nontrivial behavior. © 2007 The American Physical Society.