The BRAF V600E mutation and BRAF inhibitor responsiveness characterize ∼50% of patients with the non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH) Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD). We interrogated the non-LCH molecular landscape [ECD, n = 35; Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), n = 3; mixed ECD/RDD, n = 1] using BRAF V600E PCR and/or next-generation sequencing [tissue and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of plasma and/or urine]. Of 34 evaluable patients, 17 (50%) had the BRAF V600E mutation. Of 31 patients evaluable for non-BRAF V600E alterations, 18 (58%) had ≥1 alteration and 12 putative non-BRAF V600E MAPK pathway alterations: atypical BRAF mutation; GNAS, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, NF1, and RAS mutations; RAF1 or ERBB2 amplifications; LMNA-NTRK1 (TRK inhibitor-sensitive) and CAPZA2-BRAF fusions. Four patients had JAK2, MPL ASXL1, U2AF1 alterations, which can correlate with myeloid neoplasms, a known ECD predisposition, and one developed myelofibrosis 13 months after cfDNA testing. Therefore, our multimodal comprehensive genomics reveals clinically relevant alterations and suggests that MAPK activation is a hallmark of non-LCH.