# Your search: "author:"Almgren, Ann S.""

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## Scholarly Works (13 results)

Axisymmetric numerical simulations continue to provide insight into how the structure, dynamics, and maximum windspeeds of tornadoes, and other convectively-maintained vortices, are influenced by the surrounding environment. This work is continued with a new numerical model of axisymmetric incompressible flow that incorporates adaptive mesh refinement. The model dynamically increases or decreases the resolution in regions of interest as determined by a specified refinement criterion. Here, the criterion used is based on the cell Reynolds number dx dv / nu, so that the flow is guaranteed to be laminar on the scale of the local grid spacing. The model is used to investigate how the altitude and shape of the convective forcing, the size of the domain, and the effective Reynolds number (based on the choice of the eddy viscosity nu) influence the structure and dynamics of the vortex. Over a wide variety of domain and forcing geometries, the vortex Reynolds number Gamma / nu (the ratio of the far-field circulation to the eddy viscosity) is shown to be the most important parameter for determining vortex structure and behavior. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical scale of the convective forcing only affects the vortex inasmuch as this vertical scale contributes to the total strength of the convective forcing. The horizontal scale of the convective forcing, however, is found to be the fundamental length scale in the problem, in that it can determine both the circulation of the fluid that is drawn into the vortex core, and also influences the depth of the swirling boundary layer. Higher mean windspeeds are sustained as the eddy viscosity is decreased; however, it is observed that the highest windspeeds are found in the high-swirl, two-celled vortex regime rather than in the low-swirl, one-celled regime, which is in contrast with some previous results. The conclusions drawn from these results are applied to dimensional simulations with scales similar to the mesocyclone/thunderstorm environment. Tornado-like vortices are reproduced, using a constant eddy viscosity with such values as 40 m2s-1, which have maximum windspeeds, radii of maximum winds, and boundary layer depths which are quite similar t o those recently observed with portable Doppler radar. Based on the results of both nondimensional and tornado-scale simulations, scaling laws are empirically derived for the internal length scales in tornado-like vortices, such as the depth of the boundary layer and the radius of maximum winds.

The convective period leading up to a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion is characterized by very low Mach number flows, requiring hydrodynamical methods well-suited to long-time integration. We continue the development of the low Mach number equation set for stellar scale flows by incorporating the effects of heat release due to external sources. Low Mach number hydrodynamics equations with a time-dependent background state are derived, and a numerical method based on the approximate projection formalism is presented. We demonstrate through validation with a fully compressible hydrodynamics code that this low Mach number model accurately captures the expansion of the stellar atmosphere as well as the local dynamics due to external heat sources. This algorithm provides the basis for an efficient simulation tool for studying the ignition of SNe Ia.

Approximate projection methods are useful computational tools for solving the equations of time-dependent incompressible flow.In this report we will present a new discretization of the approximate projection in an approximate projection method. The discretizations of divergence and gradient will be identical to those in existing approximate projection methodology using cell-centered values of pressure; however, we will replace inversion of the five-point cell-centered discretization of the Laplacian operator by a Fast Multipole Method-based Poisson Solver (FMM-PS).We will show that the FMM-PS solver can be an accurate and robust component of an approximation projection method for constant density, inviscid, incompressible flow problems. Computational examples exhibiting second-order accuracy for smooth problems will be shown. The FMM-PS solver will be found to be more robust than inversion of the standard five-point cell-centered discretization of the Laplacian for certain time-dependent problems that challenge the robustness of the approximate projection methodology.

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great stances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and time scales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes.

There is considerable technological interest in developing new fuel-flexible combustion systems that can burn fuels such as hydrogenor syngas. Lean premixed systems have the potential to burn these types of fuels with high efficiency and low NOx emissions due to reduced burnt gas temperatures. Although traditional scientific approaches based on theory and laboratory experiment have played essential roles in developing our current understanding of premixed combustion, they are unable to meet the challenges of designing fuel-flexible lean premixed combustion devices. Computation, with itsability to deal with complexity and its unlimited access to data, hasthe potential for addressing these challenges. Realizing this potential requires the ability to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent lean premixed flames under realistic conditions. In this paper, we examine the specialized mathematical structure of these combustion problems and discuss simulation approaches that exploit this structure. Using these ideas we can dramatically reduce computational cost, making it possible to perform high-fidelity simulations of realistic flames. We illustrate this methodology by considering ultra-lean hydrogen flames and discuss how this type of simulation is changing the way researchers study combustion.