Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of OEA in feeding regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain OEA and their regulation by nutritional status. OEA was detected in all studied tissues (liver, intestinal bulb, proximal intestine, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon and brainstem). Food deprivation (48 h) reduced intestinal OEA levels and levels increased upon re-feeding, suggesting that this compound may be involved in the short-term regulation of food intake in goldfish, as a satiety factor. Next, the effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of OEA on feeding, swimming and plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides were analysed. Food intake, swimming activity and circulating triglyceride levels were reduced by OEA 2 h post-injection. Finally, the possible interplay among OEA and other feeding regulators (leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, orexin and monoamines) was investigated. OEA actions on energy homeostasis in goldfish could be mediated, at least in part, through interactions with ghrelin and the serotonergic system, as OEA treatment reduced ghrelin expression in the intestinal bulb, and increased serotonergic activity in the telencephalon. In summary, our results indicate for the first time in fish that OEA could be involved in the regulation of feeding, swimming and lipid metabolism, suggesting a high conservation of OEA actions in energy balance throughout vertebrate evolution.