PURPOSE:Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) responds to VEGF receptor inhibitors. VEGF signals through RAS/RAF/MEK signaling. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the VEGF receptor inhibitor pazopanib and MEK inhibitor trametinib in advanced solid tumors and DTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in a phase I, multicenter trial with a DTC expansion cohort. Patients received pazopanib 400-800 mg and trametinib 1-2 mg daily. Efficacy in the expansion cohort was assessed with objective response (OR) at 6 months of treatment. RESULTS:Twenty-six patients were enrolled in five dose levels. MTD was not reached; the recommended phase II dose was pazopanib 800 mg orally and trametinib 2 mg orally every day. There was one dose-limiting toxicity on dose level 1 with grade 3 fatigue and muscle weakness. Common grade 3 adverse events were elevated transaminases (19%), diarrhea (15%), hypertension (12%), and fatigue (8%). Thirteen patients were enrolled in the DTC cohort; OR was 33% (95% confidence interval, 9.9, 65.1%) and median progression-free survival was 10.7 months. The cohort was terminated after planned interim analysis suggested insufficiently increased activity against the historical control of pazopanib alone. Reduction in tumor diameter negatively correlated with p-ERK change in tumor (Spearman ρ = -0.71; P = 0.05). NRAS mutation was associated with response (Fisher exact P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS:Pazopanib + trametinib was tolerable at full single-agent doses with clinical activity in DTC but did not achieve the prespecified response rate target.