Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) is an uncommon CNS tumor originally described in the fourth ventricle characterized by a low-grade glial neoplasm admixed with a rosette-forming neurocytic component.
We reviewed clinicopathologic features of 42 patients with RGNT. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed, and genome-wide methylation profiling is underway.
The 20 male and 22 female patients had a mean age of 25 years (range 3–47) at time of diagnosis. Tumors were located within or adjacent to the lateral ventricle (n=16), fourth ventricle (15), third ventricle (9), and spinal cord (2). All 31 tumors assessed to date contained FGFR1 activating alterations, either in-frame gene fusion, kinase domain tandem duplication, or hotspot missense mutation in the kinase domain (p.N546 or p.K656). While 7 of these 31 tumors harbored FGFR1 alterations as the solitary pathogenic event, 24 contained additional pathogenic alterations within PI3-kinase or MAP kinase pathway genes: 5 with additional PIK3CA and NF1 mutations, 4 with PIK3CA mutation, 3 with PIK3R1 mutation (one of which also contained focal RAF1 amplification), 5 with PTPN11 mutation (one with additional PIK3R1 mutation), and 2 with NF1 deletion. The other 5 cases demonstrated anaplastic features including hypercellularity and increased mitotic activity. Among these anaplastic cases, 3 harbored inactivating ATRX mutations and two harbored CDKN2A homozygous deletion, in addition to the FGFR1 alterations plus other PI3-kinase and MAP kinase gene mutations seen in those RGNT without anaplasia.
Independent of ventricular location, RGNT is defined by FGFR1 activating mutations or rearrangements, which are frequently accompanied by mutations involving PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTPN11, NF1, and KRAS. Whereas pilocytic astrocytoma and ganglioglioma are characterized by solitary activating MAP kinase pathway alterations (e.g. BRAF fusion or mutation), RGNT are genetically more complex with dual PI3K-Akt-mTOR and Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway activation. Rare anaplastic examples may show additional ATRX and/or CDKN2A inactivation.