This review provides a comprehensive account of what is known presently about Amazonian aerosol particles and concludes by formulating outlook and priorities for further research. The review is organized to follow the life cycle of Amazonian aerosol particles. It begins with a discussion of the primary and secondary sources relevant to the Amazonian particle burden, followed by a presentation of the particle properties that characterize the mixed populations present over the Amazon Basin at different times and places. These properties include number and mass concentrations and distributions, chemical composition, hygroscopicity, and cloud nucleation ability. The review presents Amazonian aerosol particles in the context of natural compared to anthropogenic sources as well as variability with season and meteorology. This review is intended to facilitate an understanding of the current state of knowledge on Amazonian aerosol particles specifically and tropical continental aerosol particles in general and thereby to enhance future research in this area. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.