# Your search: "author:"Bell, John B.""

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## Scholarly Works (47 results)

In this paper we use numerical simulation to investigate shock-induced ignition and combustion of a hydrocarbon gas. The focus of this paper is on quantifying the effect of fidelity in the chemical kinetics on the overall solution. We model the system using the compressible Navier Stokes equations for a reacting mixture. These equations express conservation of species mass, momentum, total energy.

Axisymmetric numerical simulations continue to provide insight into how the structure, dynamics, and maximum windspeeds of tornadoes, and other convectively-maintained vortices, are influenced by the surrounding environment. This work is continued with a new numerical model of axisymmetric incompressible flow that incorporates adaptive mesh refinement. The model dynamically increases or decreases the resolution in regions of interest as determined by a specified refinement criterion. Here, the criterion used is based on the cell Reynolds number dx dv / nu, so that the flow is guaranteed to be laminar on the scale of the local grid spacing. The model is used to investigate how the altitude and shape of the convective forcing, the size of the domain, and the effective Reynolds number (based on the choice of the eddy viscosity nu) influence the structure and dynamics of the vortex. Over a wide variety of domain and forcing geometries, the vortex Reynolds number Gamma / nu (the ratio of the far-field circulation to the eddy viscosity) is shown to be the most important parameter for determining vortex structure and behavior. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical scale of the convective forcing only affects the vortex inasmuch as this vertical scale contributes to the total strength of the convective forcing. The horizontal scale of the convective forcing, however, is found to be the fundamental length scale in the problem, in that it can determine both the circulation of the fluid that is drawn into the vortex core, and also influences the depth of the swirling boundary layer. Higher mean windspeeds are sustained as the eddy viscosity is decreased; however, it is observed that the highest windspeeds are found in the high-swirl, two-celled vortex regime rather than in the low-swirl, one-celled regime, which is in contrast with some previous results. The conclusions drawn from these results are applied to dimensional simulations with scales similar to the mesocyclone/thunderstorm environment. Tornado-like vortices are reproduced, using a constant eddy viscosity with such values as 40 m2s-1, which have maximum windspeeds, radii of maximum winds, and boundary layer depths which are quite similar t o those recently observed with portable Doppler radar. Based on the results of both nondimensional and tornado-scale simulations, scaling laws are empirically derived for the internal length scales in tornado-like vortices, such as the depth of the boundary layer and the radius of maximum winds.

In this paper we study the behavior of a premixed turbulent methane flame in three dimensions using numerical simulation. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustion algorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conserves both species mass and total enthalpy. The species and enthalpy equations are treated using an operator-split approach that incorporates stiff integration techniques for modeling detailed chemical kinetics. The methodology also incorporates a mixture model for differential diffusion. For the simulations presented here, methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19 (19-species, 84-reaction) mechanism derived from the GRIMech-1.2 mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transport databases. We consider a lean flame with equivalence ratio 0.8 for two different levels of turbulent intensity. For each case we examine the basic structure of the flame including turbulent flame speed and flame surface area. The results indicate that flame wrinkling is the dominant factor leading to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation between heat release and curvature. We also investigate the effect of turbulent flame interaction on the flame chemistry. We identify specific flame intermediates that are sensitive to turbulence and explore various correlations between these species and local flame curvature. We identify different mechanisms by which turbulence modulates the chemisry of the flame.

The convective period leading up to a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion is characterized by very low Mach number flows, requiring hydrodynamical methods well-suited to long-time integration. We continue the development of the low Mach number equation set for stellar scale flows by incorporating the effects of heat release due to external sources. Low Mach number hydrodynamics equations with a time-dependent background state are derived, and a numerical method based on the approximate projection formalism is presented. We demonstrate through validation with a fully compressible hydrodynamics code that this low Mach number model accurately captures the expansion of the stellar atmosphere as well as the local dynamics due to external heat sources. This algorithm provides the basis for an efficient simulation tool for studying the ignition of SNe Ia.

This work presents three-dimensional simulations of core convection in a 15 solar mass star halfway through its main sequence lifetime. We examine the effects of two common modeling choices on the resulting convective flow: using a reduced domain size and using a monatomic, or single species, approximation. We compare a multi-species simulation on a full sphere (360 degree) domain with a multi-species simulation on an octant domain and also with a single species simulation on a full sphere domain.

To perform the long-time calculations, we use the new low Mach number code MAESTRO. The first part of this work deals with numerical aspects of using MAESTRO for the core convection system, a new application for MAESTRO. We extend MAESTRO to include two new models, a single species model and a simplified two-dimensional planar model, to aid in the exploration of using MAESTRO for core convection in massive stars. We discuss using MAESTRO with a novel spherical geometry domain configuration, namely, with the outer boundary located in the interior of the star, and show how this can create spurious velocities that must be numerically damped using a sponging layer. We describe the preparation of the initial model for the simulation. We find that assuring neutral stratification in the convective core and reasonable resolution of the gravity waves in the stable layer are key factors in generating suitable initial conditions for the simulation. Further, we examine a numerical aspect of the velocity constraint that is part of the low Mach number formulation of the Euler equations. In particular, we investigate the numerical procedure for computing β0, the density-like variable that captures background stratification in the velocity constraint, and find that the original method of computation remains a good choice.

The three-dimensional simulation results show that using a single species model actually increases the computational cost of the simulation because the single species system takes longer to reach quasi-steady state convection. This is due to the fact that a single species model cannot effectively model mixing at the convection zone boundary, where fluid of a differing composition is pulled into the convective region.

Simulations in an octant yields flow with statistical properties that are within a factor of two (or less) of the full sphere simulation values. Both the octant and full sphere simulations show similar mixing across the convection zone boundary that is consistent with the turbulent entrainment model. However, the global character of the flow is distinctly different in the octant simulation, showing more rapid changes in the large scale structure of the flow, leading to a more isotropic flow on average. Thus, for studies of more rapid dynamics that could depend sensitively on anisotropy in the flow, such as simulations of the helium flash or oxygen shell burning, performing simulations on a reduced domain is questionable.