OBJECTIVES:Osseointegrated prostheses are increasingly used for amputees, however, the lengthy rehabilitation time of these prostheses remains a challenge to their implementation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of locally applied vibration or low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) to accelerate osseointegration and increase peri-implant bone volume. METHODS:A 4-week and 8-week rodent study were conducted in a femoral intramedullary implant model (control, vibration, LIPUS, and combined treatment) to determine effects on healing. Osseointegration was evaluated quantitatively through mechanical, µCT and histological evaluations. RESULTS:Maximum pushout load at 4 weeks increased with LIPUS relative to control (37.7%, P=0.002). Histologically, LIPUS and vibration separately increased peri-implant bone formation after 4 weeks relative to control. Vibration resulted in greater peri-implant bone after 8 weeks than all other groups (25.7%, P<0.001). However, no significant group differences in pushout load were noted at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Although vibration increased bone around implants, LIPUS was superior to vibration for accelerating osseointegration and increasing bone-implant failure loads at 4 weeks. However, the LIPUS benefits on osseointegration at 4 weeks were not sustained at 8 weeks.