Mounting evidence from epidemiological studies and animal models has linked exposures to environmental factors to changes in epigenetic markers, especially in DNA methylation. These epigenetic changes may lead to dysregulation of molecular processes and functions and mediate the impact of environmental exposures in complex diseases. However, detailed molecular events that result in epigenetic changes following exposures remain unclear. Here, we review the emerging evidence supporting a critical role of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) in mediating these processes. Targeting TET1 and its associated pathways may have therapeutic potential in alleviating negative impacts of environmental exposures, preventing and treating exposure-related diseases.