None of the so-called developing countries has an adequate rodent control program at present. In only a few of these countries is any rodent control research occurring despite the fact that rodent problems are actually quite serious in many regions and potentially so in others. Expertise, techniques, and materials from the developed countries are of limited usefulness because of major differences in rodent species involved, standards for food handling and sanitation, and in the cultural contexts in which rodent control must occur. Trained personnel, both for control work and the basic research needed, are in very short supply. In addition, rodent control is frequently a low priority Item in the generally meager budgets of developing countries. To date, international agencies, foreign aid programs, and foundations have had very limited success in altering this situation, although at present there is an upsurge of interest in rodent control problems.