We calculate coherent neutrino and antineutrino flavor transformation in the supernova environment, for the first time including self-consistent coupling of intersecting neutrino and antineutrino trajectories. For neutrino mass-squared difference /deltam2/ = 3 x 10(-3) eV2 we find that in the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy the more tangentially-propagating (radially-propagating) neutrinos and antineutrinos can initiate collective, simultaneous medium-enhanced flavor conversion of these particles across broad ranges of energy and propagation direction. Accompanying alterations in neutrino and antineutrino energy spectra and fluxes could affect supernova nucleosynthesis and the expected neutrino signal.

We investigate the ground motion produced by rupture propagation through circular barriers and asperities in an otherwise homogeneous earthquake rupture. Using a three-dimensional finite difference method, we analyze the effect of asperity radius, strength, and depth in a dynamic model with fixed rupture velocity. We gradually add complexity to the model, eventually approaching the behavior of a spontaneous dynamic rupture, to determine the origin of each feature in the ground motion. A barrier initially resists rupture, which induces rupture front curvature. These effects focus energy on and off the fault, leading to a concentrated pulse from the barrier region and higher velocities at the surface. Finally, we investigate the scaling laws in a spontaneous dynamic model. We find that dynamic stress drop determines fault-parallel static offset, while the time it takes the barrier to break is a measure of fracture energy. Thus, given sufficiently strong heterogeneity, the prestress and yield stress (relative to sliding friction) of the barrier can both be determined from ground motion measurements. In addition, we find that models with constraints on rupture velocity have less ground motion than constraint-free spontaneous dynamic models with equivalent stress drops. This suggests that kinematic models with such constraints overestimate the actual stress heterogeneity of earthquakes.

We examine a phenomenon recently predicted by numerical simulations of supernova neutrino flavor evolution: the swapping of supernova nu(e) and nu(mu,tau) energy spectra below (above) energy E(C) for the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. We present the results of large-scale numerical calculations which show that in the normal neutrino mass hierarchy case, E(C) decreases as the assumed effective 2x2 vacuum nu(e)<==>nu(mu,tau) mixing angle (approximately theta13) is decreased. In contrast, these calculations indicate that E(C) is essentially independent of the vacuum mixing angle in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy case. With a good neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova, the above results could be used to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy even if theta13 is too small to be measured by terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments.

We present results of 3-neutrino flavor evolution simulations for the neutronization burst from an O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernova. We find that nonlinear neutrino self-coupling engineers a single spectral feature of stepwise conversion in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy case and in the normal mass hierarchy case, a superposition of two such features corresponding to the vacuum neutrino mass-squared differences associated with solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations. These neutrino spectral features offer a unique potential probe of the conditions in the supernova environment and may allow us to distinguish between O-Ne-Mg and Fe core-collapse supernovae.