CONTEXT:A recent study reported the non-synonymous G534E (rs7080536, allele A) variant in the HABP2 gene as causal in familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC). OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to evaluate the causality of HABP2 G534E in the TCUKIN study, a multi-center population based study of NMTC cases from the British Isles. DESIGN AND SETTING:A case-control analysis of rs7080536 genotypes was performed using 2,105 TCUKIN cases and 5,172 UK controls. PARTICIPANTS:Cases comprised 2,105 NMTC cases. Patients sub-groups with papillary (N=1,056), follicular (N=691) and Hurthle cell (N=86) TC cases were studied separately. Controls comprised 5,172 individuals from the 1958 Birth Cohort (58C) and the National Blood Donor Service (NBS) study. The controls had previously been genotyped using genome-wide SNP arrays by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study. OUTCOME:Measures: Association between HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) and NMTC risk was evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS:The frequency of HABP2 G534E was 4.2% in cases and 4.6% in controls. We did not detect an association between this variant and NMTC risk (OR=0.896, 95% CI: 0.746-1.071, P=0.233). We also failed to detect an association between HABP2 G534E and cases with papillary (1056 cases, G534E frequency= 3.5%, OR=0.74, P=0.017), follicular (691 cases, G534E frequency= 4.7%, OR=1.00, P=1.000) or Hurthle cell (86 cases, G534E frequency= 6.3%, OR=1.40, P=0.279) histology. CONCLUSIONS:We found that HABP2 G534E is a low-to-moderate frequency variant in the British Isles and failed to detect an association with NMTC risk, independent of histological type. Hence, our study does not implicate HABP2 G534E or a correlated polymorphism in familial NMTC and additional data are required before using this variant in NMTC risk assessment.