Neural stem/progenitor cell (NS/PC)-based therapies have shown exciting potential for regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) and NS/PC cultures represent an important resource for disease modeling and drug screening. However, significant challenges limiting clinical translation remain, such as generating large numbers of cells required for model cultures or transplantation, maintaining physiologically representative phenotypes ex vivo and directing NS/PC differentiation into specific fates. Here, we report that culture of human NS/PCs in 3D, hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich biomaterial microenvironments increased differentiation toward oligodendrocytes and neurons over 2D cultures on laminin-coated glass. Moreover, NS/PCs in 3D culture exhibited a significant reduction in differentiation into reactive astrocytes. Many NS/PC-derived neurons in 3D, HA-based hydrogels expressed synaptophysin, indicating synapse formation, and displayed electrophysiological characteristics of immature neurons. While inclusion of integrin-binding, RGD peptides into hydrogels resulted in a modest increase in numbers of viable NS/PCs, no combination of laminin-derived, adhesive peptides affected differentiation outcomes. Notably, 3D cultures of differentiating NS/PCs were maintained for at least 70 days in medium with minimal growth factor supplementation. In sum, results demonstrate the use of 3D, HA-based biomaterials for long-term expansion and differentiation of NS/PCs toward oligodendroglial and neuronal fates, while inhibiting astroglial fates. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 704-718, 2019.