Stroke remains a major cause of disability. The cost of stroke rehabilitation is substantial. Understanding the factors that predict response to inpatient stroke rehabilitation may be useful, for example, to best individualize the content of therapy, or to maximize the efficiency with which resources are directed. This review reviewed the literature and found that numerous variables were associated with outcome after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. The strongest evidence exists for factors such as age, stroke subtype, nutritional status, psychosocial factors such as living with family prior to stroke or presence of a caregiver. Functional status on admission, urinary incontinence, post-stroke infection, and aphasia each can also impact prognosis. Strengths and weaknesses of cited studies are considered in an attempt to inform design of future studies examining the factors that predict response to inpatient rehabilitation after stroke.