BackgroundThe extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. The association between common dyslipidemias (combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, metabolic Syndrome (MetS), isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and isolated hypertriglyceridemia) compared with normolipidemia and the risk of multivessel CAC is underinvestigated.
ObjectivesTo determine whether there is an association between common dyslipidemias compared with normolipidemia, and the extent of coronary artery involvement among MESA participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline.
MethodsIn a cross-sectional analysis, 4,917 MESA participants were classified into six groups defined by specific LDL-c, HDL-c, or triglyceride cutoff points. Multivessel CAC was defined as involvement of at least 2 coronary arteries. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis evaluated the association of each group with multivessel CAC after adjusting for CVD risk factors.
ResultsUnadjusted analysis showed that all groups except hypertriglyceridemia had statistically significant prevalence ratios of having multivessel CAC as compared to the normolipidemia group. The same groups maintained statistical significance prevalence ratios with multivariate analysis adjusting for other risk factors including Agatston CAC score [combined hyperlipidemia 1.41 (1.06-1.87), hypercholesterolemia 1.55 (1.26-1.92), MetS 1.28 (1.09-1.51), and low HDL-c 1.20 (1.02-1.40)].
ConclusionCombined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, MetS, and low HDL-c were associated with multivessel coronary artery disease independent of CVD risk factors and CAC score. These findings may lay the groundwork for further analysis of the underlying mechanisms in the observed relationship, as well as for the development of clinical strategies for primary prevention.