BackgroundThe Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, an increasingly relevant arboviral vector, has spread worldwide. However, currently available tools are limited in terms of effective monitoring of vector populations and accurate determination of the extent of viral transmission, especially before and during outbreaks. Therefore, it is essential to develop novel monitoring and surveillance tools, particularly those that target adult mosquitoes and enhance the trapping efficiency for Ae. albopictus.
MethodsA variety of human body odorants associated with different types of mosquito olfactory receptors were selected, and their attractiveness to Ae. albopictus was tested by a four-arm olfactometer. The optimal compatibility and proportion of the odorants, Mix-5, was observed via orthogonal design analyses. The attractiveness of Mix-5 to Ae. albopictus in the laboratory was assessed using Mosq-ovitraps and Electric Mosquito Killers. In the field, the effectiveness of generic BG-Lure, Mix-5 and a control treatment was compared with a baited Biogents Sentinel trap (BGS-trap) using a Latin square design.
ResultsIn the olfactometer experiments, the attractiveness of the selected candidate compounds at varying dilutions was poor when the individual compounds were used alone. The optimal combination, Mix-5, was generated based on orthogonal design analyses. In the laboratory, the average numbers of female Ae. albopictus mosquitoes attracted by the synthetic odorant blend Mix-5 were 27.00 and 27.50, compared with 12.00 and 14.83 for the control, when using Mosq-ovitraps and Electric Mosquito Killers, respectively. In the field, the average number of Ae. albopictus female mosquitoes trapped by Mix-5 was 9.67 females/trap, whereas the average numbers for BG-Lure and the control were 7.78 and 4.47, respectively. The lure also played an important role in attracting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, and the average numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus female mosquitoes attracted by Mix-5, BG-Lure and the control were 18.78, 25.11 and 12.22, respectively.
ConclusionsA human odor-based bait blend was developed and exhibited enhanced effectiveness at attracting Ae. albopictus This blend can be used to monitor and trap dengue vector mosquitoes in Chinese cities.