BACKGROUND:The impact of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well understood due to a lack of instruments specific to the condition. STUDY DESIGN:Content for a new self-administered patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaire to assess ADPKD-related HRQoL was developed through clinical expert and patient focus group discussions. The new PRO instrument was administered to study patients with ADPKD to evaluate its reliability and validity. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:1,674 adult patients with ADPKD participated in this research: 285 patients in focus groups to generate questionnaire content, 15 patients in debriefing interviews to refine the PRO questionnaire, and 1,374 patients to assess the performance and measurement properties of the PRO questionnaire. OUTCOME:A new PRO questionnaire. RESULTS:The ADPKD Impact Scale (ADPKD-IS), consisting of 14 items representing 3 conceptual domains (physical, emotional, and fatigue) plus 4 additional questions, was developed. The instrument's reliability (regarding internal consistency and test-retest consistency) and validity (content and construct) were supported. LIMITATIONS:Need for more responsiveness testing when more data from clinical use become available over time. Complex concepts such as ADPKD-related pain and impact on a patient's HRQoL need further evaluation. CONCLUSIONS:The ADPKD-IS is a new patient-centric tool that reliably and validly provides a standardized method for assessing HRQoL and overall disease burden in patients with ADPKD.