Being the second most common type of primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents, Ewing Sarcoma (ES) encounters the dilemma of low survival rate with a lack of effective treatments. As an emerging approach to combat cancer, RNA therapeutics may expand the range of druggable targets. Since the genome-derived oncolytic microRNA-34a (miR-34a) is down-regulated in ES, restoration of miR-34a-5p expression or function represents a new therapeutic strategy which is, however, limited to the use of chemically-engineered miRNA mimics. Very recently we have developed a novel bioengineering technology using a stable non-coding RNA carrier (nCAR) to achieve high-yield production of biocompatible miRNA prodrugs, which is a great addition to current tools for the assessment of RNA therapeutics. Herein, for the first time, we investigated the biochemical pharmacology of bioengineered miR-34a-5p prodrug (nCAR/miR-34a-5p) in the control of ES using human ES cells and xenograft mouse models. The bioengineered nCAR/miR-34a-5p was precisely processed to mature miR-34a-5p in ES cells and subsequently suppressed cell proliferation, attributable to the enhancement of apoptosis and induction of G2 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of SIRT-1, BCL-2 and CDK6 protein levels. Furthermore, systemic administration of nCAR/miR-34a-5p dramatically suppressed the ES xenograft tumor growth in vivo while showing biocompatibility. In addition, the antitumor effect of bioengineered nCAR/miR-34a-5p was associated with a lower degree of tumoral cell proliferation and greater extent of apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of bioengineered miR-34a-5p prodrug for the treatment of ES and support the development of miRNA therapeutics using biocompatible bioengineered miRNA prodrugs.