Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A (CypA) plays important roles in signaling, protein translocation, inflammation, and cancer formation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which CypA exerts its effects. C57BL/6 Ppia (encoding CypA)-deficient embryonic fibroblasts show reduced activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), the p65/RelA subunit, suggesting that CypA may mediate modulation of NF-κB activity to exert its biological effects.Western blotting and qRT-PCR analyses were used to evaluate the association of CypA deficiency with reduced activation of NF-κB/p65 at the protein level. GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation were used to examine interactions between CypA and p65/RelA. Truncation mutants and site-directed mutagenesis were used to determine the sequences of p65/RelA required for interactions with CypA. Enhancement of p65/RelA nuclear translocation by CypA was assessed by co-transfection and immunofluorescent imaging. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide that were harvested at various time points for Western blot analyses was carried out to evaluate p65/RelA protein stability. The functional activity of NF-κB was assessed by electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA), luciferase assays, and changes in expression levels of target genes.GST pull-down assays in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in vivo provided evidence for protein-protein interactions. These interactions were further supported by identification of a CypA-binding consensus-like sequence within NF-κB subunit p65 at the N-terminal 170-176 amino acid residues. Significantly, CypA provided stability for NF-κB p65 and promoted NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, resulting in increased nuclear accumulation and enhanced NF-κB activity.Our findings revealed important mechanisms that regulate NF-κB activation, and offer new insights into the role of CypA in aberrant activation of NF-κB-mediated signaling for altered expression of its target genes, resulting in pathological effects in various diseases.