Single modal cancer therapy that targets one pathological pathway often turns out to be inefficient. For example, relapse of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) after inhibiting BCR-ABL fusion protein using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) (e.g., Imatinib) is of significant clinical concern. This study developed a dual modal gene therapy that simultaneously tackles two key BCR-ABL-linked pathways using viral/nonviral chimeric nanoparticles (ChNPs). Consisting of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) core and an acid-degradable polymeric shell, the ChNPs were designed to simultaneously induce pro-apoptotic BIM expression by the AAV core and silence pro-survival MCL-1 by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) encapsulated in the shell. The resulting BIM/MCL-1 ChNPs were able to efficiently suppress the proliferation of BCR-ABL+ K562 and FL5.12/p190 cells in vitro and in vivo via simultaneously expressing BIM and silencing MCL-1. Interestingly, the synergistic antileukemic effects generated by BIM/MCL-1 ChNPs were specific to BCR-ABL+ cells and independent of a proliferative cytokine, IL-3. The AAV core of ChNPs was efficiently shielded from inactivation by anti-AAV serum and avoided the generation of anti-AAV serum, without acute toxicity. This study demonstrates the development of a synergistically efficient, specific, and safe therapy for leukemia using gene carriers that simultaneously manipulate multiple and interlinked pathological pathways.