© 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomesmay help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective cohort study conducted across 3 academic centers (from April 2006 to September 2013 in Canada, from March 2007 to March 2013 in the Netherlands, and from January 2004 to August 2011 in the United States). Children who were born preterm (24-32 weeks' gestation) and who had undergone a placental pathologic evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging as soon as clinically stable, and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) assessments between 18 and 24 months' corrected age (CA) were included. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for grade of IVH and volume of punctate WMI. Data analysis occurred between December 2016 and January 2018. Final multivariable analyses examining the association of chorioamnionitis with motor and cognitive outcomes accounted for academic center and perinatal and postnatal factors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Punctate WMI volume and IVH detected on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging scans; motor and cognitive outcomes defined using Bayley-III assessments conducted among these children between 18 and 24 months' CA. RESULTS Of 350 neonates (182 male) in the final cohort, 145 (41.4%) had histologic chorioamnionitis. Gestational age was significantly lower among those with chorioamnionitis (median, 26.4 weeks; interquartile range [IQR], 25.6-27.7 weeks) than among those without chorioamnionitis (median, 28.0 weeks; IQR, 27.0-29.7 weeks). Chorioamnionitis was not associated with IVH or WMI, nor was it associated with worse motor outcomes in univariable or multivariable analyses (adjusted Bayley-III motor score, -2.2; 95%CI, -5.6 to 1.3). Cognitive scores were marginally yet statistically significantly lower among children with chorioamnionitis (median, 105; IQR, 95-110) than among those without chorioamnionitis (median, 105; IQR, 100-115) in the univariable model. This difference was attenuated in the multivariable model (adjusted Bayley-III cognitive score, -3.0; 95%CI, -6.4 to 0.4). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Histologic chorioamnionitis was not associated with IVH or WMI near birth or with worse cognitive or motor outcomes from 18 to 24 months' CA after accounting for perinatal factors. Postnatal factors attenuated the association between chorioamnionitis and neurodevelopmental outcomes, highlighting the importance of preventing postnatal illness, such as infection, to promote optimal outcomes among children born preterm.