We present estimates, based on psychophysical measurements, of the density of cones in the fovea centralis of human dichromats. The estimates for a group of three protanopes and three deuteranopes (this study) were compared to the estimates of the density of cones in a group of six color normal trichromats from previous studies (Cicerone & Nerger, 1985, 1989). The results support the conclusion that the density of cones in the fovea centralis of the dichromat is comparable to that of the color normal trichomat. These results tend not to support a model of dichromacy in which a class of cones as well as the associated pigment are lost in the dichromatic eye. Instead, dichromacy appears to involve a loss of one of the three visual pigments associated with human trichromacy, with a retention of the full numbers of cones.