© 2020 authors. We present an analysis of electron recoils in cryogenic germanium detectors operated during the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment. The data are used to set new constraints on the axioelectric coupling of axionlike particles and the kinetic mixing parameter of dark photons, assuming the respective species constitutes all of the galactic dark matter. This study covers the mass range from 40 eV/c2 to 500 keV/c2 for both candidates, excluding previously untested parameter space for masses below ∼1 keV/c2. For the kinetic mixing of dark photons, values below 10-15 are reached for particle masses around 100 eV/c2; for the axioelectric coupling of axionlike particles, values below 10-12 are reached for particles with masses in the range of a few-hundred eV/c2.