Over two-thirds of adults in the United States are obese or overweight, which is largely due to chronic overconsumption of diets high in fats and sugars (i.e., Western diet). Recent studies reveal that maternal obesity may predispose offspring to development of obesity and other metabolic diseases; however, the molecular underpinnings of these outcomes are largely unknown. The endocannabinoid system is an important signaling pathway that controls feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, and its activity becomes upregulated in the upper small intestinal epithelium of Western diet-induced obese mice, which drives overeating. In the current investigation, we examined the impact of chronic maternal consumption of Western diet on the expression and function of the endocannabinoid system in several peripheral organs important for food intake and energy homeostasis in offspring. Female C57BL/6Tac mice were fed a Western diet or low-fat/no-sucrose control chow for 10 weeks, then males were introduced for mating. Dams were maintained on their respective diets through weaning of pups, at which time pups were maintained on low-fat/no-sucrose chow for 10 weeks. Neonates born from dams fed Western diet, when compared to those born from mice fed control chow, unexpectedly displayed increases in mortality that occurred exclusively within six days following birth (greater than 50% mortality). Males comprised a larger fraction of surviving offspring from obese dams. Furthermore, surviving offspring displayed transient increases in body mass for first two days post weaning, and no marked changes in feeding patterns and endocannabinoid levels in upper small intestinal epithelium, pancreas, and plasma, or in expression of key endocannabinoid system genes in the upper small intestinal epithelium and pancreas at 10 weeks post-weaning. Collectively, these results suggest that maternal diet composition greatly influences survival of neonate C57BL/6Tac mice, and that surviving offspring from dams chronically fed a Western diet do not display marked changes in body mass, eating patterns, or expression and function of the endocannabinoid system in several peripheral organs important for feeding behavior and energy homeostasis.