© 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present the results of deep Chandra imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous Chandra observations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800 ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately 0.29 deg2. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence; a factor shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs), but over an area ∼3 times greater than each CDF. We present a catalog of 937 point sources detected in the deep Chandra observations, along with identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multiband counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are available predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is ∼38%. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multiband photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are active galactic nuclei and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of and an outlier fraction of approximately 5%, reaching with less than 4% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multiwavelength photometry, and redshift catalogs are made publicly available.