Background The effects of race on response to medical therapy in people with peripheral artery disease ( PAD ) are unknown. Methods and Results In the PROPEL (Progenitor Cell Release Plus Exercise to Improve Functional Performance in PAD) Trial, PAD participants were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 6 months: supervised treadmill exercise+granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( GM - CSF ) (Group 1), exercise+placebo (Group 2), attention control+ GM - CSF (Group 3), or attention control+placebo (Group 4). Change in 6-minute walk distance was measured at 12- and 26-week follow-up. In these exploratory analyses, groups receiving GM - CSF (Groups 1 and 3), placebo (Groups 2 and 4), exercise (Groups 1 and 2), and attention control (Groups 2 and 4) were combined, maximizing statistical power for studying the effects of race on response to interventions. Of 210 PAD participants, 141 (67%) were black and 64 (30%) were white. Among whites, GM - CSF improved 6-minute walk distance by +22.0 m (95% CI : -4.5, +48.5, P=0.103) at 12 weeks and +44.4 m (95% CI : +6.9, +82.0, P=0.020) at 26 weeks, compared with placebo. Among black participants, there was no effect of GM - CSF on 6-minute walk distance at 12-week ( P=0.26) or 26-week (-5.0 m [-27.5, +17.5, P=0.66]) follow-up, compared with placebo. There was an interaction of race on the effect of GM - CSF on 6-minute walk change at 26-week follow-up ( P=0.018). Exercise improved 6-minute walk distance in black ( P=0.006) and white ( P=0.034) participants without interaction. Conclusions GM - CSF improved 6-minute walk distance in whites with PAD but had no effect in black participants. Further study is needed to confirm racial differences in GM - CSF efficacy in PAD . Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01408901.