Rapid advances in the ability to produce nanoparticles of uniform size, shape, and composition have started a revolution in the sciences. Nano-sized structures herald innovative technology with a wide range of potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. More than 1000 nanostructures have been reported, many with potential medical applications, such as metallic-, dielectric-, magnetic-, liposomal-, and carbon-based structures. Of these, noble metallic nanoparticles are generating significant interest because of their multifunctional capacity for novel methods of laboratory-based diagnostics, in vivo clinical diagnostic imaging, and therapeutic treatments. This review focuses on recent advances in the applications of nanotechnology in head and neck cancer, with special emphasis on the particularly promising plasmonic gold nanotechnology.