Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects about 1 in 50,000 children worldwide. MHE, also known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas (MO), is characterized by cartilage-capped outgrowths called osteochondromas that develop adjacent to the growth plates of skeletal elements in young patients. These benign tumors can affect growth plate function, leading to skeletal growth retardation, or deformations, and can encroach on nerves, tendons, muscles, and other surrounding tissues and cause motion impairment, chronic pain, and early onset osteoarthritis. In about 2-5% of patients, the osteochondromas can become malignant and life threatening. Current treatments consist of surgical removal of the most symptomatic tumors and correction of the major skeletal defects, but physical difficulties and chronic pain usually continue and patients may undergo multiple surgeries throughout life. Thus, there is an urgent need to find new treatments to prevent or reverse osteochondroma formation. The 2016 International MHE Research Conference was convened to provide a forum for the presentation of the most up-to-date and advanced clinical and basic science data and insights in MHE and related fields; to stimulate the forging of new perspectives, collaborations, and venues of research; and to publicize key scientific findings within the biomedical research community and share insights and relevant information with MHE patients and their families. This report provides a description, review, and assessment of all the exciting and promising studies presented at the Conference and delineates a general roadmap for future MHE research targets and goals.