This dissertation is a collection of research studies that address challenges in Performance-based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) and provides solutions to issues of concern to practicing engineers, researchers, city planners, and the insurance industry alike in implementation of PBEE for building structures. Contributions made within this research are four fold: i) An applied solution is provided to reduce the number of ground motion records required to reliably estimating Intensity Measure-Engineering Demand Parameters (IM-EDP) relationship used for building loss estimation. This solution employs classical linear modal analysis to develop a first estimate (i.e. a priori) of IM-EDP relationships, followed by utilizing Bayesian statistics to update these estimates using a small number of nonlinear response history analyses of a detailed model of the building (i.e., posterior). ii) An applied hazard based Regional Seismic Loss Assessment (RSLA) method for buildings is formulated. In contrast to previous research in this field, the proposed RSLA method utilizes a regional rapid seismic hazard disaggregation tool and is computationally efficient and sufficient. iii) A new seismic design methodology is formulized and presented. A set of preliminary Performance-based Seismic Design (PPBSD) tools are developed for four-story reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame (RC-SMRF) office buildings, located in Los Angeles at 475 year ground motion return period by which stakeholders can make informed decisions with regards to the potential risk they may adopt against future earthquakes. iv) An earthquake loss rating system is provided that maps a building's seismic performance to a rating value/index. This outcome can transfer seismic risk metrics to non-engineers in an effective communicative way.