Now that male circumcision has been shown to have a protective effect for men against HIV infection when engaging in vaginal intercourse with HIV-infected women, the research focus needs to shift towards the operational studies that can pave the way for effective implementation of circumcision programs. Behavioral research is needed to find out how people perceive the procedure and the barriers to and facilitators of uptake. It should also assess the risk of an increase in unsafe sex after circumcision. Social research must examine cultural perceptions of the practice, in Africa and beyond, including how likely uncircumcised communities are to access surgery and what messages are needed to persuade them. Advocates of male circumcision would benefit from research on how to influence health policy-makers, how best to communicate the benefits to the public, and how to design effective delivery models.