Cell-to-cell communication and cell fusion are fundamental biological processes across the tree of life. Survival is often dependent upon being able to identify nearby individuals and respond appropriately. Communication between genetically different individuals allows for the identification of potential mating partners, symbionts, prey, or predators. In contrast, communication between genetically similar (or identical) individuals is important for mediating the development of multicellular organisms or for coordinating density-dependent behaviors (i.e., quorum sensing). This review describes the molecular and genetic mechanisms that mediate cell-to-cell communication and cell fusion between cells of Ascomycete filamentous fungi, with a focus on Neurospora crassa. Filamentous fungi exist as a multicellular, multinuclear network of hyphae, and communication-mediated cell fusion is an important aspect of colony development at each stage of the life cycle. Asexual spore germination occurs in a density-dependent manner. Germinated spores (germlings) avoid cells that are genetically different at specific loci, while chemotropically engaging with cells that share identity at these recognition loci. Germlings with genetic identity at recognition loci undergo cell fusion when in close proximity, a fitness attribute that contributes to more rapid colony establishment. Communication and cell fusion also occur between hyphae in a colony, which are important for reinforcing colony architecture and supporting the development of complex structures such as aerial hyphae and sexual reproductive structures. Over 70 genes have been identified in filamentous fungi (primarily N. crassa) that are involved in kind recognition, chemotropic interactions, and cell fusion. While the hypothetical signal(s) and receptor(s) remain to be described, a dynamic molecular signaling network that regulates cell-cell interactions has been revealed, including two conserved MAP-Kinase cascades, a conserved STRIPAK complex, transcription factors, a NOX complex involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, cell-integrity sensors, actin, components of the secretory pathway, and several other proteins. Together these pathways facilitate the integration of extracellular signals, direct polarized growth, and initiate a transcriptional program that reinforces signaling and prepares cells for downstream processes, such as membrane merger, cell fusion and adaptation to heterokaryon formation.