The wild progenitor of common-bean has an exceptionally large distribution from northern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, unusual among crop wild progenitors. This research sought to document major events of range expansion that led to this distribution and associated environmental changes. Through the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (∼20,000 SNPs) and geographic information systems applied to a sample of 246 accessions of wild Phaseolus vulgaris, including 157 genotypes of the Mesoamerican, 77 of the southern Andean, and 12 of the Northern Peru-Ecuador gene pools, we identified five geographically distinct subpopulations. Three of these subpopulations belong to the Mesoamerican gene pool (Northern and Central Mexico, Oaxaca, and Southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America) and one each to the Northern Peru-Ecuador (PhI) and the southern Andean gene pools. The five subpopulations were distributed in different floristic provinces of the Neotropical seasonally dry forest and showed distinct distributions for temperature and rainfall resulting in decreased local potential evapotranspiration (PhI and southern Andes groups) compared with the two Mexican groups. Three of these subpopulations represent long-distance dispersal events from Mesoamerica into Northern Peru-Ecuador, southern Andes, and Central America and Colombia, in chronological order. Of particular note is that the dispersal to Northern Peru-Ecuador markedly predates the dispersal to the southern Andes (∼400 vs. ∼100 ky), consistent with the ancestral nature of the phaseolin seed protein and chloroplast sequences observed in the PhI group. Seed dispersal in common bean can be, therefore, described at different spatial and temporal scales, from localized, annual seed shattering to long-distance, evolutionarily rare migration.