Incommensurate charge order (CO) has been identified as the leading competitor of high-temperature superconductivity in all major families of layered copper oxides, but the perplexing variety of CO states in different cuprates has confounded investigations of its impact on the transport and thermodynamic properties. The three-dimensional (3D) CO observed in YBa2Cu3O6+x in high magnetic fields is of particular interest, because quantum transport measurements have revealed detailed information about the corresponding Fermi surface. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering to demonstrate 3D-CO in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x films grown epitaxially on SrTiO3 in the absence of magnetic fields. The resonance profiles indicate that Cu sites in the charge-reservoir layers participate in the CO state, and thus efficiently transmit CO correlations between adjacent CuO2 bilayer units. The results offer fresh perspectives for experiments elucidating the influence of 3D-CO on the electronic properties of cuprates without the need to apply high magnetic fields.