© 2019 American Physical Society. We present a symmetry-adapted real-space formulation of Kohn-Sham density functional theory for cylindrical geometries and apply it to the study of large X (X=C, Si, Ge, Sn) nanotubes. Specifically, starting from the Kohn-Sham equations posed on all of space, we reduce the problem to the fundamental domain by incorporating cyclic and periodic symmetries present in the angular and axial directions of the cylinder, respectively. We develop a high-order finite-difference parallel implementation of this formulation, and verify its accuracy against established plane-wave and real-space codes. Using this implementation, we study the band structure and bending properties of X nanotubes and Xene sheets, respectively. Specifically, we first show that zigzag and armchair X nanotubes with radii in the range 1 to 5nm are semiconducting, other than the armchair and zigzag type III carbon variants, for which we find a vanishingly small bandgap, indicative of metallic behavior. In particular, we find an inverse linear dependence of the bandgap with respect to the radius for all nanotubes, other than the armchair and zigzag type III carbon variants, for which we find an inverse quadratic dependence. Next, we exploit the connection between cyclic symmetry and uniform bending deformations to calculate the bending moduli of Xene sheets in both zigzag and armchair directions, while considering radii of curvature up to 5nm. We find Kirchhoff-Love type bending behavior for all sheets, with graphene and stanene possessing the largest and smallest moduli, respectively. In addition, other than graphene, the sheets demonstrate significant anisotropy, with larger bending moduli along the armchair direction. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed approach has very good parallel scaling and is highly efficient, enabling ab initio simulations of unprecedented size for systems with a high degree of cyclic symmetry. In particular, we show that even micron-sized nanotubes can be simulated with modest computational effort. Overall, the current work opens an avenue for the efficient ab initio study of 1D nanostructures with large radii as well as 1D/2D nanostructures under uniform bending.