© 2004 by Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. In examining the philosophy of Productive Welfare, this chapter will address three matters. First since this section of the book deals with comparative and international perspectives, the policy orientation of Productive Welfare is examined within a larger context, so that we might see where it stands in relation to both the conventional ideal of the progressive welfare state and to recent patterns of reform that are reshaping the conventional paradigm to varying degrees in almost all of the industrial democracies. Here a number of large-scale trends are summarized, which have been more thoroughly documented elsewhere (Gilbert 2002). Next, several assumptions in the philosophy of Productive Welfare are explored with an eye to clarifying issues raised concerning the value of work and unpaid labor. Finally, the chapter ends on a philosophical note that concerns the broader consequences of Productive Welfare for the relation between the state and market economy, and their normative implications for the character of modern social life.