The co-occurrence of HIV and alcohol use disorder (AUD) amplifies risk for neural injury and neurocognitive deficits. However, the substantial neurocognitive heterogeneity across HIV+/AUD+ individuals suggests inter-individual differences in vulnerability to the neurotoxicity of comorbid HIV/AUD. Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which metabolizes ethanol, may contribute to inter-individual neurocognitive variability. We evaluated associations between five ADH single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neurocognition in men stratified by HIV and lifetime AUD status. Neurobehavioral assessments were administered to 153 men. Three-way ANOVAs examined the interaction of HIV, AUD, and ADH SNPs on global and domain-specific demographically corrected T scores. Follow-up ANCOVAs adjusted for age, estimated verbal IQ, depression, and remote non-alcohol substance use disorders. HIV/AUD groups differed globally and for verbal fluency, working memory, executive function, and processing speed T scores specifically, with HIV+/AUD+ exhibiting the poorest performance. ADH4 (rs1126671) was associated with large effects on working memory (d = - 1.16, p = .001) and executive function (d = - 0.77, p = .028) selectively in HIV+/AUD+, which remained significant in ANCOVA models. ADH1A (rs3819197) moderated the deleterious effects of HIV+/AUD+ on processing speed such that HIV+/AUD+ related to slower information processing in A allele carriers but not GG homozygotes (ps < 0.03). Preliminary findings suggest genetic variation in the ADH pathway moderates the deleterious neurocognitive effects of comorbid HIV/AUD. Differential metabolism of heavy ethanol exposure may compromise neurocognition under conditions of neurobiological stress, such as in HIV infection. The functional effects on ethanol metabolism of ADH SNPs examined in this study remain poorly understood, warranting further examination of pharmacokinetic mechanisms mediating ADH gene-neurobehavior relationships in HIV.