The immunodeficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease may be due to accelerated destruction of mature CD4+ T cells and/or impaired differentiation of progenitors of CD4+ T cells. HIV-1 infection may also inhibit the production of other hematopoietic lineages, by directly or indirectly suppressing the maturation of multilineage and/or lineage-restricted hematopoietic progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, the effects of durable viral suppression on multilineage hematopoiesis in 66 HIV-1-seropositive patients were evaluated. Administration of effective antiretroviral therapy resulted in an increase in circulating CD4+ T cell counts and statistically significant increases in circulating levels of other hematopoietic lineages, including total white blood cells, lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and platelets. These results suggest that a significant lesion in untreated HIV-1 disease may lie at the level of cell production from hematopoietic progenitors.