Camptothecin (CPT), an alkaloid, was first discovered from plants and has potent anti-tumor activity. Since then, CPT analogs (namely Irinotecan and Topotecan) have been approved by the FDA for cancer treatments. Curcumin, on the other hand, is a widely used photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment. In our previous work, we have reported a straightforward strategy to construct a drug self-delivery system in which two-molecular species Irinotecan and Curcumin can self-assembly into a complex of ion pairs, namely ICN, through intermolecular non-covalent interactions. We found that ICN has slightly better chemotherapy efficacy than its individual components with much fewer side effects. In this paper, we aim to combine the chemotherapy and the PDT of ICN to further improve its anti-tumor performance. The efficient cellular uptake of ICNs was observed by confocal microscopy. Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to detect the generation of singlet oxygen species. We found that the cell viability was 9% with both chemotherapy and PDT, and 31% with chemotherapy alone for the case with an ICN concentration of 10 μM, which demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy against the HT-29 cancer cell line was enhanced substantially with the combination therapy strategy. The study with an in vivo mouse model has further verified that the chemo-PDT dual therapy can inhibit tumor growth by 84% and 18.8% comparing with the control group and the chemotherapy group, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the new strategy using self-assembly and carrier-free nanoparticles with their chemo-PDT dual therapy may provide new opportunities to develop future combinatorial therapy methods in treating cancer.