Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed marked changes in the composition of the microbiome and the metabolome and their potential influence in renal disease and CVD via the accumulation of microbial-derived uremic toxins. However, the effect of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to UUO and sham-operated control groups. Renal histology, colonic microbiota, and plasma metabolites were examined two weeks later. We employed 16S rRNA sequence and untargeted metabolomic analyses to explore the changes in colonic microbiota and plasma metabolites and their relationship with tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). The UUO rats exhibited tubular atrophy and dilatation, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the obstructed kidney. UUO rats showed significant colonic enrichment and depletion of genera. Significant differences were identified in 219 plasma metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and bile acid metabolism, which were consistent with gut microbiota-related metabolism. Interestingly, tryptophan and its metabolites kynurenine, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were linked with TIF, correlated with nine specific genera. Plasma tryptophan level was positively correlated with Clostridium IV, Turicibacter, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillales, and negatively correlated with Oscillibacter, Blautia, and Intestinimonas, which possess the genes encoding tryptophan synthase (K16187), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (K00463) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (K00453) and their corresponding enzymes (EC:184.108.40.206 and EC:220.127.116.11) that exacerbate TIF. In conclusion, UUO results in profound changes in the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites, events that contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammation and TIF.