The first comprehensive measurements of plasma flows and fluctuations nearby static magnetic islands driven by resonant magnetic perturbations are presented. These experiments were performed using multiple Langmuir probe arrays on the edge plasmas of the J-TEXT tokamak. Controlled variations of the island size and location are explored. This study aims to understand the interaction between turbulence and magnetic islands, and to elucidate magnetic island effects on edge turbulence and flow intensity profiles, edge electric fields, and thus confinement regime transitions. Turbulence and low frequency flows (LFFs) all drop inside the magnetic island, but increase at its boundary, as island width increases. The geodesic acoustic mode is damped in most of the edge area with magnetic islands. The sign of the radial electric field changes from negative to positive within the islands. The gradient of turbulent stresses vanishes at the island center, and becomes steeper at the boundaries of the islands. The particle transport induced by the turbulence is reduced inside the magnetic islands. The magnetic island effects on flows and turbulence can lead to an increase in LFFs and enhance Reynolds stresses near the last closed flux surface (LCFS). A stronger radial electric field layer can be formed near the LCFS when magnetic islands are present. The results suggest that magnetic islands can be used as a tool to enhance edge turbulence and flows, edge electric fields, and thus to trigger confinement regime transitions.