© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a tomographic cosmic shear study from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), which, providing a limiting magnitude rlim ∼ 27 (5s), is designed as a precursor Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) survey with an emphasis on depth. Using five tomographic redshift bins, we study their auto- and cross-correlations to constrain cosmological parameters. We use a luminosity-dependent nonlinear model to account for the astrophysical systematics originating from intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes. We find that the cosmological leverage of the DLS is among the highest among existing >10 deg2 cosmic shear surveys. Combining the DLS tomography with the 9 yr results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP9) gives W = m 0.293- +0.014 0.012, s-1 = 0.833 +0.018-0.011, = +- H0 68.6 km s Mpc 1.2+1.4 - - 1 1, and W = b 0.0475 0.0012 for CDM, reducing the uncertainties of the WMAP9- only constraints by ∼50%. When we do not assume flatness for CDM, we obtain the curvature constraint W = - +- k 0.010 0.015+0.013 from the DLS+WMAP9 combination, which, however, is not well constrained when WMAP9 is used alone. The dark energy equation-of-state parameter w is tightly constrained when baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data are added, yielding w = -1.02- +0.090.10 with the DLS+WMAP9+BAO joint probe. The addition of supernova constraints further tightens the parameter to w = - 1.03 ±0.03. Our joint constraints are fully consistent with the final Planck results and also with the predictions of a CDM universe.