The worldwide prevalence of obesity mandates a widely accessible tool to categorize adiposity that can best predict associated health risks. The body adiposity index (BAI) was designed as a single equation to predict body adiposity in pooled analysis of both genders. We compared body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), and other anthropometric measures, including percent body fat (PBF), in their correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors. We also compared BAI with BMI to determine which index is a better predictor of PBF.The cohort consisted of 698 Mexican Americans. We calculated correlations of BAI, BMI, and other anthropometric measurements (PBF measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist and hip circumference, height, weight) with glucose homeostasis indices (including insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance from euglycemic clamp), lipid parameters, cardiovascular traits (including carotid intima-media thickness), and biomarkers (C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin). Correlations between each anthropometric measure and cardiometabolic trait were compared in both sex-pooled and sex-stratified groups.BMI was associated with all but two measured traits (carotid intima-media thickness and fasting glucose in men), while BAI lacked association with several variables. BAI did not outperform BMI in its associations with any cardiometabolic trait. BAI was correlated more strongly than BMI with PBF in sex-pooled analyses (r = 0.78 versus r = 0.51), but not in sex-stratified analyses (men, r = 0.63 versus r = 0.79; women, r = 0.69 versus r = 0.77). Additionally, PBF showed fewer correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI. Weight was more strongly correlated than hip with many of the cardiometabolic risk factors examined.BAI is inferior to the widely used BMI as a correlate of the cardiometabolic risk factors studied. Additionally, BMI's relationship with total adiposity may not be the sole determinate of its association with cardiometabolic risk.