© 2014 Elsevier Inc. Objective To test the hypothesis that children and adults with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD) are more likely to have abnormal lipoprotein particle profiles that could place them at increased risk for developing atherosclerosis later in life.Study design Fasting serum samples were obtained from 192 children and 63 adults with history of KD and 90 age-similar healthy controls. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LipoScience Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina), and serum was assayed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald formula. Data were analyzed in a least-square means model, with adjustment for age and sex and with the use of Holm correction for multiple comparisons.Results Compared with respective control groups, both adult and pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower mean very low-density lipoprotein-chylomicron particles, intermediate-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and TC concentrations. Pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower LDL particle and LDL cholesterol concentrations and lower mean TC/HDL-C ratio (P <.001). In contrast, the adult subjects with KD had significantly lower HDL particle, small HDL particle, and HDL-C concentrations (P <.001), but HDL-C was within normal range.Conclusions Nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein particle analysis suggests that pediatric and adult subjects with KD, regardless of their aneurysm status, are no more likely than age-similar, healthy controls to have lipid patterns associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.