The use of pesticides as one of the management tools to assist in the prevention and control of damage caused by vertebrate wildlife is certainly not new, nor has it become any less controversial in recent years. In fact, throughout the recent history of pesticide uses for control of vertebrate damage to the production of food and fiber, the prevention of potential epizootic diseases, and other potential threats to man's well-being and to the habitats and management of other wildlife resources, the use of pesticides as well as other management tools have generally been reviewed and monitored by professionals. Justifiably, there has been a significant amount of research conducted to monitor both direct and indirect hazards or potential hazards to nontarget vertebrate wildlife species. It is essential to assess, research and monitor these hazards to other vertebrates, as well as to evaluate the cost benefits and risk benefits of pesticide use. How can we put these concerns or potential occurrences into proper perspective? I'm not sure about many of the potential concerns because knowledge, experience and common sense use by professionals should prevent most nontarget risks. However, I do believe that by providing consideration for a review of nontarget wildlife losses to pesticides as well as other losses to vertebrates we might become more professionally cautious while concurrently improving our competence and confidence in the use of pesticides to prevent and control vertebrate wildlife damage.