The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) are jointly developing Nb-3Sn quadrupole magnets to be installed in the LHC for its upgrade to higher luminosity. These magnets' quench protection system will include a combination of quench heaters attached to the coil surfaces and coupling-loss-induced quench (CLIQ) units electrically connected to the magnets. Different protection elements have been characterized separately and simultaneously by implementing them on two 1.2-m-long model quadrupole magnets, tested at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory and CERN, and one 4-m-long mirror magnet tested at Brookhaven Nation Laboratory. After analyzing the test data, their performances have been positively evaluated. Furthermore, the electrothermal transients occurring after a quench have been simulated with the LEDET software and the results are compared to experimental results. The preferred quench protection system configuration relies both on heaters and CLIQ. This solution is based on electrically robust components, achieves an effective reduction of the coils hot spot temperature after a quench, and offers increased redundancy against component failures.