High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

Using angle-integrated photoemission spectroscopy we have probed the novel
LaO$_{0.9}$F$_{0.1}$FeAs superconductor over a wide range of photon energies
and temperatures. We have provided the first full characterization of the
orbital character of the VB DOS and of the magnitude of the d-p hybridization
energy. Finally, we have identified two characteristic temperatures: 90K where
a pseudogap-like feature appears to close and 120K where a sudden change in the
DOS near E$_F$ occurs. We associate these phenomena with the SDW magnetic
ordering and the structural transition seen in the parent compound,
respectively. These results suggest the important role of electron correlation,
spin physics and structural distortion in the physics of Fe-based
superconductors.

A universal high energy anomaly in the single particle spectral function is reported in three different families of high temperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral function from the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersion anomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38 eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersion splits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolic dispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottom of the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by a peak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 and E_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture that these two energies mark the disintegration of the low energy quasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cup rates.

The manifestation of Weyl fermions in strongly correlated electron systems is of particular interest. We report evidence for Weyl fermions in the heavy fermion semimetal YbPtBi from electronic structure calculations, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, magnetotransport and calorimetric measurements. At elevated temperatures where 4f-electrons are localized, there are triply degenerate points, yielding Weyl nodes in applied magnetic fields. These are revealed by a contribution from the chiral anomaly in the magnetotransport, which at low temperatures becomes negligible due to the influence of electronic correlations. Instead, Weyl fermions are inferred from the topological Hall effect, which provides evidence for a Berry curvature, and a cubic temperature dependence of the specific heat, as expected from the linear dispersion near the Weyl nodes. The results suggest that YbPtBi is a Weyl heavy fermion semimetal, where the Kondo interaction renormalizes the bands hosting Weyl points. These findings open up an opportunity to explore the interplay between topology and strong electronic correlations.