Given its rarity, appropriate treatment for pineocytoma remains variable. As the literature primarily contains case reports or studies involving a small series of patients, prognostic factors following treatment of pineocytoma remain unclear. We therefore compiled a systematic review of the literature concerning post-treatment outcomes for pineocytoma to better determine factors associated with overall survival among patients with pineocytoma. We performed a comprehensive search of the published English language literature to identify studies containing outcome data for patients undergoing treatment for pineocytoma. Kaplan–Meier analysis was utilized to determine overall survival rates. Our systematic review identified 168 total patients reported in 64 articles. Among these patients, 21% underwent biopsy, 38% underwent subtotal resection, 42% underwent gross total resection, and 29% underwent radiation therapy, either as mono- or adjuvant therapy. The 1 and 5 year overall survival rates for patients receiving gross total resection versus subtotal resection plus radiotherapy were 91 versus 88%, and 84 versus 17%, respectively. When compared to subtotal resection alone, subtotal resection plus radiation therapy did not offer a significant improvement in overall survival. Gross total resection is the most appropriate treatment for pineocytoma. The potential benefit of conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of these lesions is unproven, and little evidence supports its use at present.