OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that BRAF is a low-risk susceptibility gene for low malignant potential (LMP) ovarian cancer. A recent study of the relationship between BRAF polymorphisms and malignant melanoma identified strong linkage disequilibrium across the BRAF gene with one of the three most common haplotypes (haplotype C) having a population attributable risk of approximately 1.6%. We therefore hypothesized that the same BRAF haplotype may confer an increased risk of serous ovarian tumors of low malignant potential. METHODS: We genotyped 383 cases of LMP ovarian cancer, including 234 of serous histology, and 987 controls for seven SNPs, representative of the most common BRAF gene haplotypes, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Haplotype information was obtained for 369 LMP ovarian cancer cases and 983 healthy controls. None of the haplotypes were found to be associated with risk of LMP ovarian cancer (OR for haplotype C 0.81, 95% CI = 0.54-1.22), or with the risk of serous LMP ovarian cancer (OR for haplotype C 0.90, 95% CI = 0.56-1.45). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence to suggest that BRAF is a low-risk LMP ovarian cancer susceptibility gene.