Limited data exist describing risk factors for death, and long-term outcomes in dogs with esophageal foreign body (EFB) obstruction.To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes, and analyze risk factors for death in dogs with EFB obstruction. We hypothesized duration of entrapment and treatment type would affect outcome.A total of 222 dogs were treated for EFB obstruction at an emergency and referral hospital between March 1998 and March 2017.Medical records for dogs with EFB were retrospectively evaluated.Foreign material most frequently was osseous (180/222 [81%]), with distal esophagus the most common location (110/222 [49.5%]). Duration of clinical signs was not associated with risk of death (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.99-1.17; P = 0.2). Entrapment was treated by endoscopy (204/222 [91.8%]), surgery after endoscopic attempt (13/222 [5.9%]), and repeat endoscopy after surgery was recommended but declined (5/222 [2.3%]). In-hospital case fatality rate was 11/222 (5%). Risk of death was significantly higher with surgery (OR = 20.1, 95% CI 3.59-112.44; P = 0.001), and 5/5 (100%) of dogs died if undergoing endoscopy after surgery was recommended but declined. Increasing numbers of postprocedural complications (OR = 3.44, CI 2.01-5.91; P < 0.001), esophageal perforation (OR = 65.47, CI 4.27-1004.15; P = 0.003), and postprocedure esophageal hemorrhage (OR = 11.81, CI 1.19-116.77; P = 0.04) increased in-hospital risk of death. Esophageal strictures were reported in 4/189 (2.1%) of survivors available for follow-up.Death is uncommon in canine EFB; however, treatment type affects outcome, and these data should be used to guide decision-making in dogs with EFB.